Ocular fundus examination with new technologies of image analysis: OCT and GDx, allows the diagnoses of diseases such as Diabetes, Hypertension or neuro-degenerative: Multiple Sclerosis or Alzheimer.



Since Von Helmholtz invented the ophthalmoscope in 1850, the fundus examination has been a key aspect in the diagnosis of eye diseases and mainly in the early diagnosis of systemic diseases that begin in the retina. For this reason it is so common for internists request us a fundus examination.

Through the pupil can get inside the eye, we can visualize the retina directly, like we lift the skin and tissues we could see inside the body. The retina is an extension of the brain and anything that affects it will manifest in it, such as neurodegenerative diseases or vascular type. The retina also acts as a filter and when toxic substances in the bloodstream, such as infections or hepatic or renal impairment, deposits occur in their capillaries and can be detected by studying the fundus.

The fundus examination we do by the ophthalmoscope can only see the innermost layer of the retina and considering that the retina has 10 layers, layered one over the other and that is nourished by a vascular layer, the choroid, which is covered by these layers, it was important to develop new systems of image analysis, such as CAT scans we use in other specialties and that has been incorporated into the eye consultations, it is what we call OCT (optical coherence tomography) or GDx, which allows us to visualize the nerve fibers of the retina and optic nerve by polarimetry.

With these new technologies we can highlight general diseases that start or develop with alterations in the fundus. We can in a few seconds and a completely safe and painless way, a full study of the fundus, with software that compares the results with data from normal and establishes a pre-diagnosis that must be confirmed by a specialist. More and more centers that perform checkups incorporate such studies to complete the screening for early detection of systemic diseases.

With this article we want to raise awareness about the importance of eye examination and especially the fundus, to detect diseases that have not yet manifested and can be serious and if treated in the early stages it can be healing or control of its evolution.

We recommend to perform a complete eye biennial review in less than 40 years old and yearly from this age. In Area Oftalmologica Avanzada we have these technologies and specialists to guide patients. We recommend carrying out eye inspections and request the examination of the fundus. As always, prevention is better than cure.


GDX - Analizador de fibras nerviosas de la retina

OCT Tomografía de coherencia óptica oftalmologo


Diseases that can be diagnosed by examining the fundus: – Diabetes– Arterial hypertension Vasospastic disease (Raynaud SDR)

Vasculitis and autoimmune diseases

Liver and kidney disorders

Systemic infections

– Multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer

Congenital metabolic dystrophies

Cancer metastasis

Cranial hypertension


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